Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

BPH is a prostate enlargement. During a man’s lifetime, the prostate undergoes two major growth phases. The first occurs when the prostate doubles in size during early puberty. The second phase of growth begins around age 25 and continues for the majority of a man’s remaining life. BPH occurs most frequently during this second phase of growth.

As the prostate swells, it exerts pressure on the urethra. The wall of the bladder becomes thicker. One day, the bladder may weaken and lose the ability to empty completely, resulting in residual urine. Narrowing of the urethra and urinary retention – inability to completely empty the bladder – contribute to many of the complications of BPH.

BPH is benign. It is therefore not cancer. It does not lead to or cause cancer. However, BPH and cancer can occur simultaneously.

BPH is prevalent. BPH affects roughly half of men between the ages of 51 and 60. Up to 90% of men older than 80 have it.

What exactly is the Prostate?

A component of the male reproductive system, the prostate. It is roughly walnut-sized and weighs about an ounce. Below the bladder and in front of the rectum is the prostate. It completely encircles a tube called the urethra, which transports urine from the bladder to the penis.

The prostate’s primary function is to produce fluid for sperm. During ejaculation, testicular sperm migrates to the urethra. In addition, fluid from the prostate and seminal vesicles moves into the urethra at the same time. This mixture, semen, exits the body through the urethra and penis.


When the prostate swells, it can irritate or obstruct the bladder. Frequent urination is a typical symptom of BPH. This may occur every 1 to 2 hours, primarily during the night.

  • Feeling that the bladder is full, even immediately after urinating
  • Feeling that urinating “can’t wait”
  • Weak urine flow
  • Needing to stop and start urinating multiple times
  • Difficulty starting to urinate
  • Difficulty starting to urinate
  • Difficulty starting to urinate
  • Needing to push or strain to urinate

If BPH becomes severe, you may lose the ability to urinate. This is an urgent situation that requires immediate attention.

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia effect urine


The origins of BPH are poorly understood. Some researchers believe that aging and testicular factors may contribute to BPH. This is because men whose testicles were removed before puberty do not develop BPH.

Men produce both testosterone, a male hormone, and small amounts of estrogen, a female hormone, throughout their lives. Age reduces the amount of active testosterone in men’s blood, leaving a greater proportion of estrogen. According to studies, BPH may occur because a higher proportion of estrogen in the prostate increases the activity of substances that initiate prostate cell growth.

Another theory implicates dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a male hormone that contributes to prostate growth and development. Even when testosterone levels in the blood begin to decline, research indicates that high levels of DHT continue to accumulate in the prostate. This may encourage prostate cells to continue expanding. Scientists have observed that BPH does not develop in men who do not produce DHT.

Who is a Candidate for BPH?

Age and a family history of BPH increase the risk of BPH in men. Additionally, obesity, inactivity, and erectile dysfunction can increase risk.

Is BPH Preventable?

There is no definitive treatment for BPH, but losing weight and consuming a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables may be helpful. This may be a result of excessive body fat, may increase hormone levels and other factors in the blood, and may promote the growth of prostate cells. Physical activity also aids in weight management and hormone regulation.


Consult your physician if you have symptoms that could indicate BPH. Consult your physician immediately if you have blood in your urine, pain or burning when urinating, or if you are unable to urinate.

Your physician can diagnose BPH based on your personal or family medical history, a physical examination, and medical tests.

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia diagnosis

A BPH Symptom Score Index has been developed by the American Urological Association (AUA). It is a series of questions about the frequency of urinary symptoms. The score ranges from mild to severe for BPH. Take the test and discuss the results with your physician.

Your physician will evaluate your Symptom Score and conduct a medical history review. Additionally, you will undergo a physical exam that includes a digital rectal exam (DRE). Your physician may also want you to undergo one or more of the following tests:

  • Cystoscopy to examine the urethra or bladder with a scope
  • Post-void residual volume to measure urine remaining in the bladder after urination
  • PSA blood test to screen for prostate cancer
  • Ultrasound of the prostate
  • Urinalysis (urine test)
  • Uroflowmetry to measure how quickly urine flows
  • Urodynamic pressure to test pressure in the bladder during urination
  • Urinary blood test to screen for bladder cancer

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